In fact you have received the enlightened and nice answer badges for this post on July 18 2016.
You'll have to scroll a bit down or even go to next page. Here is screenshot from your page listing enlightened badges:
Here is screenshot from the page with your nice answer badges:
I can see an upvote from July 18 2016 on your reputation tab but not in the post's timeline.1
To me the most plausible explanation to me seems to be that the user who upvoted your answer at the time has been since removed - that's why the upvote is no longer shown in the timeline. (Or the upvote was removed for some other reason...?) Maybe somebody will be able to investigate further based on the data provided here and possibly confirm whether this is indeed the case.
I will also explicitly point out that with the exception of tag badges, no badge is taken away, even if the criteria why it was awarded no longer hold. (Like in this instance removal of an upvote which lead to decrease of the answer score below the threshold.) For more details on this see: How do “badges” work? (The section "What can cause a badge to be lost/revoked/taken away after it is awarded?")
1To see how to get timeline for a specific post: How to see questions time line?