**The half-angle formulas are central!**

Context: The theoretical importance of half-angle formulas

And as a picture is worth a thousand words...

**Integration via Exponential Substitution**

We introduce * Exponential Substitution*, which is a transformation that simplifies certain composite trigonometric integrals and offers an alternative approach to integrating through trigonometric, hyperbolic, and Euler substitutions. For a more detailed description of how this technique works, visit the blog post 'Integration Using Some Euler-like Identities.' Examples 2, 3, and 7 illustrate how this method could be more efficient than the traditional approaches.

$$\boxed{\int f\left(x,\tan{\frac{\beta}{2}}, \tan{\frac{\gamma}{2}} \right)\,dx=\int f\left(\frac{e^{i\alpha}+e^{-i\alpha}}{2}a, e^{\pm\text{i}\alpha}, \frac{1-e^{\pm\text{i}\alpha}}{1+e^{\pm\text{i}\alpha}}\right)\,\frac{e^{\mp\text{i}\alpha}-e^{\pm\text{i}\alpha}}{2i}a\,d\alpha}\tag{1}$$

Where $\alpha=\cos^{-1}\left(\frac{x}{a}\right)$, $\beta=\csc^{-1}\left(\frac{x}{a}\right)$ and $\gamma=\sec^{-1}\left(\frac{x}{a}\right).$

Also, you can use

$$\boxed{\int f\left(x, \sqrt{x^2-a^2}, \frac{\sqrt{x-a}}{\sqrt{x+a}}\right)\,dx= \int f\left(\frac{e^{i\alpha}+e^{-i\alpha}}{2}a, \frac{e^{\mp\text{i}\alpha}-e^{\pm\text{i}\alpha}}{2}a, \frac{1-e^{\pm\text{i}\alpha}}{1+e^{\pm\text{i}\alpha}}\right)\,\frac{e^{\mp\text{i}\alpha}-e^{\pm\text{i}\alpha}}{2i}a\,d\alpha}\tag{2}$$

For the alternating signs $\mp$, use the upper sign when $\frac{x}{a} \geq 1$, and the lower sign when $0 \leq \frac{x}{a} \leq 1$.

$$\boxed{\int f\left(x, \sqrt{x^2+a^2}\right)\, dx = \int f\left(\frac{e^{\theta}-e^{-\theta}}{2}a, \frac{e^{\theta}+e^{-\theta}}{2}a\right) \frac{e^{\theta}+e^{-\theta}}{2}a\, d\theta}\tag{3}$$

Where $\theta=\sinh^{-1}(\frac{x}{a})$ and $a>0$.

Although closely related to integration using Euler's formula, it is not exactly the same.

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