This is answered at the StackExchange bounty FAQ. If a user account is deleted with an outstanding bounty, then the Community user becomes the bounty owner, and the points are eventually awarded following the "no intervention" rules.
This is to some extent similar to answer to a related feature request on Meta Stack Exchange.
Since the featured ("bountied") questions are already shown relatively prominently, I do not think that adding a separate spot for them is needed.
When a bounty is started, the question is bumped.
These questions are shown on a separate tab.
These questions are ...
You can find links to some basic information about bounties in the corresponding tag-info.
These two points from the faq item How does the bounty system work? are relevant:
You must have at least 75 reputation to start a bounty, and at least as much reputation as the bounty amount.
If you have already answered the question before, the minimum ...
Probably various statistics about this can be found - and it all depends a bit on how you define best time. I have tried to make at least some queries using Data Explorer. (Notice that it is possible to change the site in the queries, so you can compare the stats with some other sites.) Since I am pretty sure that there are many users on this site with great ...