I was very tempted to answer Suggestions for reducing the transmission rate? with the following. In fact I did, but I deleted it again, because I do realize that there is nothing mathematical in my answer, and it goes into a completely different direction than what was actually asked for in the body of the question.
However, I do think it may be an important factoid. I really couldn't believe at first that what I describe below was reality.
I have no idea where this fits, or if it fits anywhere at all. I am not asking a question here, but I feel obliged to share it.
I have one rather practical answer, which does not answer the question in the body, but possibly in the title.
I was very surprised to learn that a (small) hospital in my home town was doing their scheduling ("rostering" might be the correct term, but I don't know) by hand.
They were clever enough to ask for help just in time. Again surprisingly: informally via a mathematician they knew privately. Thus, they now have a professional university team developing a plan that fits their new needs - minimal service, minimizing the probability that a large portion of their staff simultaneously drops out.
I guess that such a strategy might also make sense for other community services, who might not even be aware of this fact.
(Disclaimer: I am not helping with the implementation, but I was lucky to know someone who knew someone who was a professional in this field, who luckily agreed to do it.)