I don't know exactly what happened, but in the last 7 days I have received twice the Marshal badge (which I had already earned in Apr 13) without raising more than 1500 helpful flags. Now in my profile this gold badge is counted thrice instead of once.
This bug was reported yesterday, and is now partially fixed. See: Excavator and Marshal badges are being awarded over and over and Extra number of gold badges appearing in profile.
The consensus from the moderaters seems to be that this should be fixed by tomorrow. For example, Oded states "This should get cleared up by a nightly job - lets see what it looks like tomorrow."